3.1.Chemical and Physical Specifications
220.127.116.11. Primary name and/or INCI name
dihydrogen dioxide, hydrogen dioxide, hydrogen oxide, oxydol,
carbamide, urea hydrogen peroxide, urea, compd. with hydrogen
18.104.22.168. Chemical names
22.214.171.124. Trade names and abbreviations
126.96.36.199. CAS / EINECS number
188.8.131.52. Structural formula
184.108.40.206. Empirical formula
3.1.2. Physical form
Carbamide peroxide: White
crystals or crystal powder
3.1.3. Molecular weight
Hydrogen peroxide: Mol.
Carbamide peroxide: Mol.
3.1.4. Purity, composition and substance codes
Hydrogen peroxide – water
supplied as a 33-37% aqueous solution. Common stabilisers
include phosphoric or other mineral acid (to keep the product
acidic), pyrophosphate salts (complexing agents to inhibit
metal-catalysed decomposition) and stannate (a colloid-forming
contain low (<0.1%) levels of
organic impurities (total
organic carbon) and very low levels (<10 ppm) of
inorganic impurities, with total heavy metals usually <2
Products containing minimum 97% of the
hydrogen peroxide –
Urea adducts are
3.1.5.Impurities / accompanying contaminants
Hydrogen peroxide is
miscible with water.
Carbamide peroxide is
soluble in water.
3.1.7.Partition coefficient (Log Pow)
3.1.8.Additional physical and chemical specifications
Pure H2O2 (not commercially available in
Density: 1.4425 g/cm3
Vapour pressure :3 hPa
Boiling point:not available
Vapour pressure : not available
Possible impurities in
hydrogen peroxide and
carbamide peroxide are not
known. Likewise is the stability of hydrogen peroxide and
carbamide peroxide in oral hygiene unknown.
3.2. Function and uses
Hydrogen peroxide is
capable of undergoing numerous reactions (e.g., molecular
additions, substitutions, oxidations and reductions). It is a
strong oxidant and can form free radical by homolytic cleavage.
Carbamide peroxide is an
adduct of urea and hydrogen
peroxide which on contact with water break down to urea and
hydrogen peroxide. For example, a 10% carbamide peroxide gel
would yield a maximum of 3.6% hydrogen peroxide. 750,000 tonnes
hydrogen peroxide (calculated as 100%
H2O2) were produced in Europe in 1995.
About 300 tonnes of carbamide peroxide were used.
The main usage of
hydrogen peroxide is in
production of chemicals (approx. 40%), bleaching
pulp and paper (approx.
30%) and bleaching textiles (approx. 20%). Small quantities are
used in cosmetics. Hydrogen peroxide is used for hair bleaching
and for oxidation in permanent hair dyes and in oral hygiene
products such as mouth-rinses and dentifrices as well as in
tooth bleaching products.