Table 11 Major resistance mechanisms (Davin-Regli et al. 2008)

Mechanism  Mechanical barrier  Enzymatic barrier  Target protection barrier 
Type of activity  Influx  Efflux, active expel  Cleavage  Alteration  Target mutation  Protective molecule, new molecules 
Susceptible antibiotic  ß-lactam, Quinolone etc.  ß-lactam, Aminoside etc.  ß-lactam  Phenicol, aminoside etc.  Quinolone, MLS etc.  ß-lactams, quinolone 

Source: SCENIHR,  Assessment of the Antibiotic Resistance Effects of Biocides (2009),
Section 3.5.1Resistance mechanisms to antibiotics, p. 41

Related publication:
Biocides homeEffects of Biocides on antibiotic resistance
Other Figures & Tables on this publication:

List of active molecules in biocidal products classified on the basis of chemical groups.

Table 2 List of active substances in biocidal products and their mode of action

Table 3 Biocides approved by US-FDA for health care settings, or registered by the US-EPA

Table 4 Commonly used skin disinfectants and antiseptics

Table 5 Major biocides used in veterinary medicine and animal husbandry

Table 6 Components of (udder) teat dips used (or having been used) in dairy animals

Table 7 Methodologies to measure bacterial resistance

Table 8 Bacterial mechanisms of resistance to biocides

Table 9 Bacteria isolated from contaminated cosmetic products and their resistance to biocides (Flores et al. 1997)

Table 10 Mechanisms of action of antibiotics

Table 11 Major resistance mechanisms (Davin-Regli et al. 2008)

Table: 23 Biocidal products listed in Annex V of the Biocides Directive (98/8/EC)