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6. Conclusions

    Phthalates in tested school supplies do not contribute
										significantly to total exposure of children.
    Phthalates in tested school supplies do not contribute significantly to total exposure of children.
    Source: Ivaylo Georgiev

    The Scientific Committee on Health and Environmental Risks (SCHER) concludes that the phthalates present in the school supplies tested by the Danish Environment Protection Agency do not significantly contribute to the total amount of phthalates taken in by children.

    Based on urine samples from people of different ages, it is concluded that total exposures to individual phthalates in the general population are below the tolerable daily intakes (TDI), except in the case of DBP for which efforts to further reduce exposures are needed. Exposure to DEHP may exceed the TDI in some specific population groups, namely people exposed through medical procedures such as kidney dialysis (see the SCENHIR opinion on “the safety of medical devices containing DEHP-plasticized PVC or other plasticizers on neonates and other groups possibly at risk” available here).

    Moreover, based on the single exploratory experiment available that assessed the rate at which DEHP in an eraser passed into artificial saliva, the SCHER estimated that biting off pieces from an eraser and swallowing these particles could lead to an exposure that exceeds the TDI by a factor of 4, but this is still 25 times lower than the No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) for DEHP that has been established from long-term experiments. Since swallowing particles bitten off an eraser represents a short-time habit of children or even a one-time event, it is unlikely that such exposure leads to health consequences.

    In any case, the SCHER stresses the great uncertainty of the evaluation carried out by the Danish EPA and proposes further research as outlined in its opinion on Organic Chemicals in Toys ( read this 2007 SCHER opinion). More...

    Overview table of critical toxic effects and Tolerable Daily Intakes (TDI)

    Phthalate Critical Toxic Effect on Tolerable daily intake (in mg per kg body weight per day) EU ban
    DEHP Reproduction 0.05 Banned in all toys and childcare articles, and in cosmetics
    BBP Reproduction and development 0.5
    DBP 0.01
    DINP Liver 0.15 Banned in toys and childcare products that children could put into their mouths
    DNOP Liver and thyroid No TDI available
    DIBP Reproduction and development -

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